Use the navigation bar above to view the abstract, introduction and methods for the entire circular, as well as a map and list of all of the HBN sites. The Kawishiwi River flows west into the Basswood River, a tributary of the Rainy River, and has an average stream gradient of 1.4 m/km and a channel length upstream from the gaging station of about 77 km, of which about 40 percent consists of on-channel lakes (Siegel and Ericson, 1980). The logging, in combination with slash fires, converted the former pine forests to paper birch and aspen stands that still persist today. Hydrologic Benchmark Network Stations in the Midwestern U.S. 1963-95 (USGS Circular 1173-B), Kawishiwi River near Ely, Minnesota (Station 05124480). Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW). Available data for this site Click to hide station-specific text This gage is operated as part of USGS Hydrologic Benchmark Network to provide long-term measurements of flow and water quality in areas that are minimally affected by human activities. Map showing study area in the Kawishiwi River Basin and photograph of a typical lake in the basin). White Iron Lake is a large, moderately-deep lake located within the Superior National Forest and is five miles east of Ely, Minnesota. In 1978, the BWCAW Act finally ended logging and greatly decreased motorboat usage in the wilderness area. Canoers and kayakers will fall head over heels in love with the Kawishiwi River. The anorthosites are composed mostly of calcic plagioclase (greater than 80 percent) and variable amounts of olivine, pyroxene, and iron oxide minerals (Davidson, 1969). Additional water- quality samples were collected at the HBN station in 1976 as part of an environmental impact study to evaluate the possible effects of mining on hydrologic systems in northeastern Minnesota (Siegel and Ericson, 1980). A short 5 rod portage provides access to Triangle Lake. This river provides a natural waterway to the BWCA and is the east border of River Point’s mile long wilderness peninsula. The Kawishiwi River provides access to Birch Lake to the south and the Boundary Waters to the north. Solute concentrations measured at site 1 were less than the first- quartile concentrations reported for the HBN station during the entire period of record (table 26), except for calcium and silica concentrations, which were higher. Kawishiwi is a name derived from the Ojibwe language meaning "the river full of beavers' houses". The major cations in stream water were calcium and magnesium, and bicarbonate was the predominant anion. This is a mostly flat trail that is accessible for most people (the trail includes a lot of roots, rocks, and wooden boardwalks). PROVISIONAL DATA SUBJECT TO REVISION. Average annual runoff from the basin was 28 cm from 1966 through 1995 (Mitton and others, 1996). this great site and online community alive by contributing your financial support. Bedrock in the basin belongs to the Duluth Complex of Proterozoic age, which consists of gabbroic and troctolitic anorthosites, which have been intruded by several types of mafic and felsic rocks. Most lakes and streams are ice covered during the winter, and the gaging station is accessible only by snowshoes or skis. Follow the "Live Social Media" Feed from [Site locations shown in fig. You then follow the current of the river south. SW of Mapleton. Since 1978, land use has been limited primarily to backcountry recreational use, and the BWCAW has become the most heavily used wilderness area in the United States. Sulfate concentrations ranged from 16 to 77 meq/L, which is slightly more than might be expected from variations in atmospheric deposition. The BWCAW is part of the National Wilderness Preservation System and is administered by the Superior National Forest (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1993). The Kawishiwi River HBN Basin is in the Superior Upland physiographic province in the northeastern corner of Minnesota (Figure 14. Important Classic Page. Pictured below is a drawn representation of the Kawishiwi Watershed. Learn more, We use cookies to enhance your experience, for analytics, and to support 3rd party content and advertising providers. Shrubs common in the upland forests include juneberry, beaked hazel, mountain maple, willow, and American green alder. This large range of ion balances was not unexpected considering the difficulties in making precise analytical measurements at the low solute concentrations typical of this station. As with sulfate, this pattern may be related to biological processes, such as the removal of silica by diatoms in the large number of lakes in the basin. The most notable pattern observed was in sulfate, which showed a period of elevated concentrations during the late 1980's. Welcome to the Kawishiwi Ranger District! This site has grown since 2002 from a few visitors a day to up to 10,000 Davidson, D.M., Jr., 1977, Reconnaissance geologic map of Lake Polly quadrangle, Cook County, Minnesota: Minnesota Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map M-34, scale 1:24,000. On the basis of the difference between annual precipitation and runoff, evapotranspiration can account for no more than a threefold increase in the chloride concentration of precipitation, indicating that some stream-water chloride is derived from sources other than wet precipitation. Find Local Fishing Spots on the Interactive Map! Concentrations of inorganic nitrogen species in stream water were less than the concentrations in precipitation, indicating most atmospheric nitrogen is retained by vegetation and soils in the basin. Dissolved organic carbon seemed to be related to the variation in alkalinity, as evidenced by the strong inverse correlation between alkalinity and ion balance (rho = -0.820), indicating that organic ligands may be important in controlling the acid-base status of surface water in the basin. The 655-km² basin ranges in elevation from 442 to 643 m and drains an area of rolling bedrock ridges interspersed with irregular shallow basins occupied by hundreds of lakes and peatlands (Heinselman, 1996). When Kawishiwi is a name derived from the Ojibwe language meaning "the river full of beavers' houses". The upland areas are dominated by jack pine, quaking aspen, and birch and commonly have an understory of northern red oak, black spruce, or fir. Cook, R.B., and Jager, H.I., 1991, Upper Midwest, in Charles, D.F., ed., Acidic deposition and aquatic ecosystems-Regional case studies: New York, Springer-Verlag, p. 421-466. The median concentration of chloride in stream water was 17 meq/L, which is about eight times greater than the VWM concentration of 2.1 meq/L in precipitation. These results may indicate that biological processes are important in controlling stream chemistry, particularly in wetland areas where reducing conditions in the soils may remove sulfate from the surface- water system. Anyone who is interested in visiting Kawishiwi River can print the free topographic map and street map using the link above. Ok. BWCA.com provides this resources to all for free. Kawishiwi River is in the Streams category for Lake County in the state of Minnesota. A wilderness travel permit issued by the Forest Service is required for all overnight visits in the BWCAW from May 1 through September 30. The River Point map offers an overview of the lakefront peninsula and the BWCA canoe outfitting base of River Point Outfitting Co. and its close proximity to the BWCA Wilderness. Calculated ion balances for 127 samples with complete major-ion analyses are shown in Figures 15a and 15b. Temporal variation of discharge, field pH, major dissolved constituents, and ion balance at Kawishiwi River, Minnesota. This office is located in the town of Ely. USGS 05124480 KAWISHIWI RIVER NEAR ELY, MN. cond., specific conductance; <, less than; --, not reported]. This river provides a natural waterway to the BWCA and is the east border of River Point’s mile long wilderness peninsula. Anyone who is interested in visiting Kawishiwi River can print the free topographic map and street map using the link above. The bias was most pronounced in dilute water, although it was not consistent among the samples and seemed to be affected by factors such as color and turbidity (Schertz and others, 1994). 90.04, Turbidimetric Sulfate Method, issued December 21, 1989, at URL http://water.usgs.gov/admin/memo/, accessed 1997). When planning a Boundary Waters trip, you should purchase maps of the BWCA for use in detailed planning and navigation. Monitoring location 05124480 is associated with a STREAM in LAKE COUNTY, MINNESOTA. The payoff is a grand view of Kawishiwi Falls. There are several different vantage points of the falls that are accessible from the trail (above, below, and from the side). The suggested citation for the information on this page is: Mast, M.A., and Turk, J.T., 1999, Environmental characteristics and water quality of Hydrologic Benchmark Network stations in the Midwestern United States, 1963-95: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1173-B, 130 p. All of the tables and figures are numbered as they appear in each circular. Stream water in the Kawishiwi River is dilute and weakly buffered; specific conductance ranged from 19 to 50 µmS/cm, and alkalinity was between 120 and 320 meq/L (table 26). The average ion balance was 1.0 percent, and 60 percent of the samples had positive ion balances, indicating a slight excess of measured cations over anions in solution, perhaps reflecting the presence of unmeasured organic anions. Last updated July 17, 2000. Forgot your password? 15). River Point’s location is just south of entry point #32, which is the South Kawishiwi River. The Kawishiwi River HBN Basin is in the Superior Upland physiographic province in the northeastern corner of Minnesota (Figure 14. Sign in. The Kawishiwi River near Ely, which flows out of and then back into the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness on its way north, has again made a list of "most endangered" rivers in the U.S. Baker (1991) estimated that dry deposition was about 27 percent of total sulfate deposition in the region, which seems to be consistent with sulfate concentrations in the river. Green, J.C., 1982, Bedrock geology, Two Harbors sheet, Minnesota: Minnesota Geological Survey, scale 1:250,000. Navigation maps: Voyageur: 7; Fisher: F3, F4; McKenzie: 18, 19. The views are gorgeous and well-worth the short hike. If you continue using this website, you agree to our privacy and legal agreement. The river also has brownish tea-colored water, which is characteristic of surface runoff from hundreds of wetlands in the basin (Heinselman, 1996). PADDLE THE QUIET SIDE®      ELYOUTFITTERS™ Ion balances ranged from -27 to 19 percent, and over 30 percent of the samples had values outside the ±10 percent range. This improvement of forest resources, in combination with the development of a wood-pulp industry, resulted in the pulpwood era of logging that lasted from 1935 to 1978. All lakes within the BWCAW on Map 8 are paddle only, with no motorized watercraft allowed at any time. The most notable spatial pattern in stream chemistry was that concentrations of the weathering-derived cations varied by less than a factor of two, whereas alkalinity varied by almost a factor of eight. In 1989, the NWQL determined that sulfate concentrations can be overestimated by this method and changed the method to ion chromatography in 1990 (Office of Water Quality Technical Memorandum No. PROVISIONAL DATA SUBJECT TO REVISION. Although not measured, dissolved organic carbon seemed to be an important component of stream water based on the tealike color of the water and the large positive ion balances of the synoptic samples (range 6.6 to 55 percent). Map 8 Gabbro, Farm, North Kawishiwi River and Lake One By: True North Maps “True North Map Company offers BWCA canoe maps. Sign up, *BWCA Entry Point information courtesy of the U.S. Forest Service. visitors a day during peak season. Lake Farm. Weather can make travel dangerous or impossible in the BWCA. Time-series plots of the major dissolved constituents were inspected for evidence of method-related effects (fig. When planning a Boundary Waters trip, you should purchase maps of the BWCA for use in detailed planning and navigation. Daily discharge records for the Kawishiwi River (station 05124480) are available beginning in June 1966. The Kawishiwi River HBN Basin is in the Superior Upland physiographic province in the northeastern corner of Minnesota (Figure 14. Topographic features in the basin trend northeast- southwest and reflect both structures in the Proterozoic bedrock and the general direction of glaciation (Siegel, 1981). Pettyman, D.H., 1978, Soil survey of Kawishiwi area, Minnesota-Parts of Lake and Cook Counties in Superior National Forest: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service, 35 p. Schertz, T.L., Wells, F.C., and Ohe, D.J., 1994, Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas, 1975-89 water years: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4213, 49 p. Siegel, D.I., and Ericson, D.W., 1980, Hydrology and water quality of the copper-nickel study region, northeastern Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 80-739, 87 p. Siegel, D.I., 1981, Effect of snowmelt on the quality of Filson Creek and Omaday Lake, northeastern Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 81-66, 81 p. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1993, Final environmental impact statement for the BWCA wilderness management plan and implementation schedule: Forest Service, Eastern Region, Superior National Forest. KAWISHIWI RIVER NEAR ELY, MN. Precipitation chemistry at the NADP station, which is about 4 km northeast of the HBN station, was dilute and slightly acidic with a VWM pH of 5.0 for 16 years of record. This route starts at entry point 29, the North Kawishiwi River. [Concentrations in units of microequivalents per liter, discharge in cubic meters per second, specific conductance in microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, and silica in micromoles per liter; n, number of stream samples; VWM, volume-weighted mean; inst., instantaneous; spec. These maps are seperated into rectangular quadrants that are intended to be printed at 22.75"x29" or larger. This is the main road leading into the entry point area. During the sampling period, discharge at the gaging station was about 3.1 m³/s compared to the median daily discharge of 2.0 m³/s for September (Lawrence, 1987), indicating that the basin was sampled during higher than normal flow conditions for that time of year. 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