Still, if you do not live in Austria, Germany or Switzerland (or do not have friends who live there ), it is quite unlikely that you have come across Austrian wine since only a fraction of it is currently being exported (with more than 90% into other EU states). The wine scandal has been the subject of many satirical references to Austrian wine, both inside Austria, in Germany and beyond, and lasting long after 1985. “Qualitätswein” is produced from the grapes grown in three federal states of Austria: Niederösterreich, Burgenland and Steiermark and they are defined as wine growing regions. Three hundred and fifty Austrian white wines have been found to contain the chemical, which health authorities warned can cause kidney, liver … The mass-circulation Kurier newspaper reported that one of the suspects in the tainted wine scandal had admitted to helping produce ″many million liters of artificial wine″ in the last few years. Grüner Veltliner accounts for approximately half of the white grape variety volume but other important varieties to mention are: Welschriesling, Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc), Riesling, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Gelber Muskateller, Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris) and indigenous grape varieties like Rotgipfler and Zierfandler. 28,000 litres of Ruster Ausbruch as well as gold had to be handed over to acquire the status. Austrian Wine Scandal.  Shortly after the scandal, the Styrian bard Volker Schöbitz composed a polka under the rhyming title Zum Wohl, Glykol - "Cheers, glycol". Westeiermark is a Schilcher (Blauer Wildbacher) region. The Austrian wine-tainting scandal a year ago has reduced the nation's wine exports to a trickle this year. Wine production of Austria is mainly about white and sweet wines, however in the country are also produced red wines. remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. The practice was uncovered by German wine analysis labs who performed quality tests on wines sold in Germany. Much stricter wine laws were also enacted by Austria on August 29, 1985 which is now one of the strictest standards in the world and since then a term “Qualitätswein” or “Quality wine” is applied to all wines produced in Austria. This meant that the wines would be less sweet and more acidic than desired and this led some unscrupulius wine producers to modify the wines. #Antifreeze #Austrianwine #Austrianwinescandal There are several reasons for this: history, climate, terroir and one of the strictest and newest wine regulatory regimes in the world following the 1985 diethylene glycol scandal when several Austrian wineries were found to be adulterating wine with this toxic substance. Grüner Veltliner has similar aromas but can often show more fruit and freshness than Chardonnay. All 3 wines have excellent price/quality ratio. Find out everything you wanted to know about the key wine producing areas of the world with their recommended wines. The Cabernet was kept for 36 months in new barrique and Blaufränkisch in a mix of new and old. Industry and government have launched campaign to regain lost markets abroad. Nevertheless, in terms of quality and value Austrian wine is notable versus its more famous competitors in Europe such as Burgundy and Italy. Very good St. Laurent and Pinot Noir year after year and the price/quality is top notch. Austria's Wine Laws Tightened in Scandal. The Austrian Wine Poisoning | Down the Rabbit Hole - YouTube Cover vegetation balances the relatively high temperatures of the Pannonian climate, whilst well ventilated leaf canopies and autumn fogs from the Neusiedlersee ensure that the grapes dry quickly after rainfall which means ideal conditions for the development of noble rot. The Austrian wine-tainting scandal a year ago has reduced the nation’s wine exports to a trickle this year. Zweigelt is the most well known Austrian red grape variety and it accounts for almost 50% of the total red wine production. So the image of ‘two Austrian wine growers one on the southern and one on the northern side etc…’ is wrong and misleading. Most of the wine in Austria comes from the eastern side of the country by Vienna. There are four sub-regions: Neusiedlersee is the largest sub-region in Burgenland and the one which boasts the many top wine producers, several of which are internationally recognised and awarded. Get to know more about Austrian wine by seeing the country’s layout and learning about its 3 top grape varieties. I remember my first visit to a Heuriger, the day I arrived in Vienna in September 1984, and the morning after. Australian wines sales also suffered because people confused it with Austria. The grapes have to be carefully picked by hand to ensure quality and gentle treatment, a process knwon as "breaking out". Weingut Juris (http://www.juris.at/en/weingut/) from Gols, chief winemaker (Axel Stiegelmar) has consistently good wines year after year. Mittelburgenland is a Blaufränkischland and the vast majority of wines produced there are based on this grape variety. Leopold Aumann (https://www.aumann.at/de) from Tribuswinkel. Südburgenland is the smallest region however it also offers a good selection of white and red wines and also local sparkling speciality called Uhudler (made of Isabella grapes, which are permitted to grow only in this region). Grüner Veltliner is the quintessential wine of Austria, but there’s more to discover. Many of the adulterated wines were found to originate in Wagram in Lower Austria, where a consulting wine chemist was prosecuted. After the fall of the Roman Empire, most of the current wine growing regions in Austria were abandoned and only with the arrival of the Cistercian monks, the Burgundian viticulture methods were reintroduced and enhanced. The 1985 austrian wine diethylene glycol scandal. I suppose that Gallo’s Red Bicyclette was sort of a scandal for the region/US. The market for Austrian wine, especially the semi-sweet styles then in favour, evaporated overnight. Austria not only recovered from this scandal, but today has emerged as one of the most impressive, quality-oriented wine regions, operating under some of the most exacting wine regulations in existence. Other white grape varieties like Welshriesling, Chardonnay (called here Morillon). A must weight of at least 30 degrees KMW at harvest is required for Ruster Ausbruch and the finished wine has a optimal alcohol content of 12%. His Badnerberg 2012 (Sankt Laurent and Merlot) were very good, but at considerably higher price of €31. In Austria, winemaking is credited to the Celts — dating back to the 8th century BC — as is evidenced by numerous excavations along the Amber Road, an early trade route between the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas. After the 1985 scandal, quality in Austrian wines has become one of the main goals of any producer and this is certainly confirmed by facts. My recent article about the Austrian wine scandal, Accolade to sell Petaluma and Krondorf wineries, Australia wins big at Decanter World Wine Awards 2020, https://www.therealreview.com/2019/01/09/austrian-wine-scandal-setting-the-record-straight. In 1985 government scientists discovered anti-freeze in bottles of fine Austrian wine, seriously damaging the country's reputation as a wine … Austria produces only a fifth as much wine as Australia – … Austrian health officials on Thursday also said that their investigation of adulterated wines had uncovered a production of fake wines. Austria was, rather surprisingly, the third largest producer of wine globally in the 1920s, mainly producing and exporting simple light white wines. Your email address will not be published. When you sip a glass of Austrian wine don’t say “Prost,” say “Frost.” The growth in the premium segment has been driven by Austrian wines, which have gained in quality over the years, following the diethylene glycol wine scandal in 1985 (see Box 1). The first non-Austrian wine in the rating was a 1998 Byron Chardonnay, Nielson Vineyards, Mondavi (California) in fifth place. Austria, often better known for its coffee and cake, has been making wine for over 1,000 years but often lingers in the shadow of the countries surrounding it. This is one of the best winemakers in Thermenregion and his Merlot Classic 2013 (Price €9.60!) Austria, like so much of Europe, celebrates a long history of winemaking, and many chapters of European winemaking will be familiar to the connoisseur. !NOBODY died and nobody was physically harmed by the substance. The Top 5 Wine Scandals . The dominant white wine grape is the green Veltliner, which yields a fruity, tart wine prized by locals. His SL Reserve 2012 (€17) was a winner last year in the St. Laurent category and it is still available for sale. In 1985 the huge scandal with the illegal additive diethylene glycol (a primary ingredient in anti freeze) made the Austrian wine making industry instantly infamous, however in a long run it served a very good purpose. The Neusiedlersee is a large shallow lake separating Austria from Hungary and benefits from outbreaks of noble rot, an essential component for the production of complex sweet wines. This year he presented Renommee 2013 (€14, cuvee of ZW and CS), CS Neuberg 2013 € 23 and Blaufränkisch Jungenberg 2013 €25. The Cabernet Sauvignon Kalbskopf 2013 €18.1, Stiegelmar 2012 (€19.4, ZW+BF+CS) and Zweigelt Ungerberg 2012 €34 are excellent. The Grande Cuvee 2013 (€12.5, cuvee of Zweigelt and Rathay), Cabernet Sauvignon "100 days" 2013 €16 and his flagman Massiv 2012 (€32, cuvee of BF, Rathay, ZW and CS. Weingut Amsee (http://www.wein-amsee.at) from Gols. Visionary winemakers, a raging natural-wine debate and revelations on a scandal aren't what I was expecting when I joined buyer Freddy Bulmer on his first buying trip to Austria earlier this year; but I was completely blown away by the passion, innovation and incredible wines I … The Austrian wine making industry thrived first under the Babenberg and then Habsburg rule with its peak in the 16th Century, when the total wine growing area was three times more than nowadays. Austrian wine scandal – setting the record straight. Scandal Over Poisoned Wine Embitters Village In Austria - August 1, 1985 (New York Times) Austrian Wine Scandal Rocks Import Industry From Sea To Sea - August 22, 1985 (Orlando Sentinal) Toxic Chemical Scandal In European Wines Expands - August 22, 1985 (Chicago Tribune) Following this there was a short decline in the 17th Century due to the siege of the Turks, but Maria Theresia and her son Josef II revived wine production again. All wines are excellent although still young and will benefit from ageing of at least 1 year in a cellar. VIENNA, Austria -- Four wine makers have been arrested for allegedly using a lethal antifreeze solution to sweeten their wine in a scheme that has threatened the future of Austria's wine … Cabernet Sauvignon Alter Satz 2012 (€39) and Blaufränkisch v36 2012 (€34) were both excellent. A blind tasting of international wines carried out on 30 October 2002, organised by the fine wine dealer and collector Jan-Erik Paulson, and hosted by Jancis Robinson MW and Tim Atkin MW, highlighted the quality of its Grüner Veltliner grape. Second place went to Kreutzer and winemaker Albert Gesellmann with his Bela Rex 2013 Cuvée. Franz Netzl and daughter Christina, run one of the most prestigious wineries in Carnuntum Weibauregion and their Cuvée Anna-Christina 2013. He is regarded as "Mr New Zealand Wine" within New Zealand and around the globe. However, this thriving industry was nearly brought to its knees in the 1980s when a scandal broke. He estimates tasting over 100,000 wines since he began to formally record tasting notes. Rust is a key city in this area as it is famous for its Ruster Ausbruch, a sweet, concentrated wine produced from grapes affected by noble rot (Botrytis cinerea) as a result of the areas climatic conditions. Although, Thermenregion is mainly a white wine producing sub-region focusing on indigenous Rotgipfler and Zierfandler it is also famous for the red Burgundy style wines and this is where excellent Pinot Noir and Sankt Laurent (St. Laurent) wines come from. Some of my personal favourites from Austria: The Falstaff Rotweingala in Hofburg is focused on the top wine producers and each of them sends 3 of his top red wines, which are then assessed by Falstaff committee in advance and then selected for the wine tasting. This winemaker has always been consistently good, but in the last few years he has started to pick up the trophies - one after another. CS Neuberg is a winner of CS category for 2 years in a row and Blaufränkisch Jungenberg is a winner in the category BF this year. HST - Hannes Steurer (http://www.hannessteurer.at/sortiment) from Jois. Wines that have passed through a panel of blind tasting can bear the label, "Cercle Ruster Ausbruch", with the Ruster wine Charta signed in December 2005 by leading producers in the area. Austrian wines are not big sellers in Florida but the diethylene glycol scandal that has rocked the European wine industry has begun to create waves of anxiety among Florida wine … My recent article about the Austrian wine scandal attracted a response from a friend of mine who runs a wine school in Austria. Although the wine was made in France the … Witness History. In the Falstaff awards for the top Austrian Wines 1st place went to Netzl winery from Göttlesbrunn. The fungus penetrates the outer wax layer of the grapes and induces a shrivelling and concentration of taste and aromas of the finished wine. Some journalist had the idea to choose the catchy term anti-freeze. The scandal involved several Austrian wineries which illegally adulterated their wines to make them appear sweeter and more full-bodied in the style of late harvest wines. (i) Wine: the wine scandal of 1985 changed Austrian wine-making, and the quality of the end-product, dramatically. Carnuntum, which is situated next to Burgenland and Pannonian plains, enjoys a lot of sunshine hence the focus here is on the red wines predominantly made of Zweigelt and Blaufränkisch. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! In the months that followed the discovery of the adulteration, several wine makers and dealers were arrested by the Austrian police and the first prison sentence, of one and a half years, followed in October 1985. Important! An embarrassing wine scandal in 1985 almost did in Austria's wine reputation, oddly caused by a few insiders attempting to aid some of the country's lower caliber wines by adding unauthorized agents to the wines. Yet with a range of world-class red and white wines, a viticulture shaped by war and scandal, as well as a capital city with more vineyards than any other, we went to unearth this Alpine nation’s secret wine culture. ... Labels will have to indicate the wine's exact origin, quality and content. My recent article about the Austrian wine scandal attracted a response from a friend of mine who runs a wine school in Austria. As a result over 27 million litres of wine (36 million bottles) were destroyed by the German authorities by pouring it into the ovens of a cement plant as a cooling agent instead of water. The wine was worth more. In those days, a good bottle of Austrian red wine was a miracle. Tagged: A guide to Austrian Wine, Burgenland, Steiermark, Wien, Niederosterreich, The 1985 austrian wine diethylene glycol scandal, Familie Johanneshof Reinisch, Thermenregion - Merlot Dornfeld, Pinot Noir, Pinot Noir Grillenhügel, Pinot Noir Holzspur, Premiere (a red young wine cuvée), Riesling , Rotgipfler, Rotgipfler Satzing, Rotgipfler Auslese, Sauvignon Blanc, St. Laurent, St. Laurent Frauenfeld, St. Laurent Holzspur, Sparkling Pinot Noir Brut, Steingarten (a red wine cuvée), Zierfandler Spiegel, Zweigelt, Zweigelt Frauenfeld, Schneider winery, Tattendorf - Excellent St.Laurent, Pinot Noir, Weingut Familie Auer, Tattendorf - Excellent Reserve St.Laurent, Pinot Noir. Eventually, someone died, a scandal was born, and Austrian wine sales tanked. The dramatic changes resulting from the Austrian wine scandal of 1985 have seen no other European country experience the “wine mania” occurring there since the early nineties. Austrian consumers are increasingly interested in premium wines and are willing to pay more for them. If the wine is from Austria, the label must say so. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), “Austrian wine scandal – setting the record straight”. At the same time Blaufränkisch, St.Laurent, Blauer Burgunder (Pinot Noir), Blauburger and Blauer Portugieser are also important to mention. It was in fact not ‘anti-freeze’, the substance used as antifreeze in cars is ethylene glycol not diethylene glycol. But it took the Austrian wine industry many years to recover (2001 wine exports recovered to pre-1985 levels) and it still has an impact on the reputation of the country's production despite it happening over 20 years ago. Burgenland is a home of full-bodied red wines thanks to long and hot Pannonian summers. Rust was granted the status of Freistadt (free city) by Emperor Leopold I in 1681, partly because of his wife's love of the local sweet wines. Zweigelt is a key grape variety in this region. On July 9th 1985, the Federal Ministry of Health in Bonn issued an official health warning against the consumption of Austrian wines, and the news quickly spread around the world. Weingut Kerniger (http://www.keringer.at/Deutsch/Frame%20Weingut.htm) from Mönchhof. It worked. In honor of what sources are calling “one of the biggest wine frauds ever,” Grape Collective takes a look back at the top five wine scandals of the past three decades. . Rotweingut Maria Kerschbaum (http://www.weingut-kerschbaum.at/htm/home/start.php) from Horitschon, Mittelburgenland - the Blaufränkischland. All four Pinot Noirs are named after particular vineyard the grapes are harvested from. First place in the tasting was awarded to a 1990 Grüner Veltliner "Vinothekfüllung" Smaragd, Knoll (Wachau, Austria) with an average rating of 18.09 points, followed by a 1997 Grüner Veltliner "Ried Lamm", Bründlmayer (Kamptal, Austria) with 17.78 points. Yet the scandal initiated a revolution that has propelled Austrian wines on to the world stage. This is very old grape variety is a great source for zesty sparkling Roséwein. Renommee (€14, ZW+CS), HST 2013 (€13, ZW+BF) and CS M1 2013 €22. There was a time where Austrian wines were shadowed with doubt. Late ripening white wine varietals with good acidity and high susceptibility to Botrytis are ideally suited to the production of Ruster Ausbruch, including Welschriesling, white pinot, Furmint and Yellow Muscat. Austria’s wines are now highly prized both by wine experts and wine lovers all around the world. By using diethylene glycol, it was possible to alter both sweetness and the body of the wine. Another Burgundermacher. The St. Laurent Reserve 2013 (€15.70) and new cuvee Contrast 2012 €16.5 (SL, Rösler, Zweigelt, Merlot) are also recommended. It consists of the following three sub-regions: The first one is not only the home for Traminer, which is a regional speciality, but also for Burgundy style white wines like Grauburgubder (Pinot Gris), Weissburgunder (Pinot Banc) and Chardonnay. was excellent. The scandal involved several Austrian wineries which illegally adulterated their wines to make them appear sweeter and more full-bodied in the style of late harvest wines. There is a growing interest in high-quality wines in Austria. Südsteiermark with its’ rolling hills and fine weather is reminiscent of Tuscany, however the focus here is on aromatic grape varieties like Sauvignon Blanc and Gelber Muskateller. The practice was uncovered by German wine analysis labs who performed quality tests on wines sold in Germany. We have chosen a few of these for you to browse through in our online wine shop. Niederösterreich is the largest wine growing region and it includes the following eight specific wine growing sub-regions: The first six sub-regions are predominantly white wine producing areas with a focus on Grüner Veltliner, Riesling and Weissburgunder. I suppose that Gallo’s Red Bicyclette was sort of a scandal for the region/US. Although the scandal was a terrible thing to happen to the country of Austria and the livelihood of many honest people in the Austrian wine industry, it was probably the best thing to ever happen to Austrian wine itself. this wine has won multiple awards). The Austrian authorities quickly realised that … blank blank. In fact, wine has been part of the culture in the Austrian region for over 4000 years but this amazing history has been obscured by the "antifreeze scandal" of 1985, when it was revealed that some wine brokers were adulterating their wines by adding the harmful substance diethylene glycol to their product. Other varieties important to Austrian wine include Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Welschriesling and Pinot Blanc (known here by its German name Weissburgunder).Austria's red wines are made primarily from Blaufrankisch, Zweigelt, Saint-Laurent and Pinot Noir (Blauburgunder).. Austria Battles to Recover From Wine Scandal - Los Angeles Times Pinot Noir, Thermenregion vineyard, Austria. Although small in size Austria produces some of the finest wines in the world, not widely available online these wines are select gems. Weingut Johann Gisperg (http://www.weingut-gisperg.at) from Teesdorf . The first wine discovered to contain DEG was a 1983 Rüster Auslese from a supermarket in Stuttgart, analysed on June 27, 1985 and a 1981 Welschriesling Beerenauslese from Burgenland was found to contain 48 grams per litre of diethylene glycol meaning that one bottle could have been lethal or irreversibly damage the kidney, liver and brain. BobCampbell.nz offers access to Bob's latest wine reviews, news and opinions. In addition to the wine growing industry this is the Spa and hot springs paradise. The scandal had a long-term impact on the Austrian wine industry, with exports returning to their pre-1985 levels only in 2001. Archeologists have confirmed that people had been planting grapes in Austria since before the Roman Empire and with its arrival the wine growing became even more organised. Interesting fact: “Approximately 62% of Austria is covered by the Austrian Alps. Some Austrian exporters had entered into long-term contracts with supermarket chains to supply large quantities of wine at a specified quality and in poor vintages much of the grape harvest did not reach sufficient ripeness levels. The wine label must contain the following information; origin, variety, vintage, quality designation, alcohol content by volume, reference to its residual sugars (i.e. Third place went to Winzerhof Ronald Kiss from Jois for the Gamay Jungenberg 2013. He also has a very nice BF DAC Leithaberg 2013, which is a smaller brother of Jungenberg and quite enjoyable been now and costs €15. Winzerhof Kiss (http://www.winzerhof-kiss.at) from Jois. All three categories of wines tasted were won by Austrian wines. Weingut Dopler (http://www.tattendorf.at/dopler/) from Tattendorf. The estimate was that the lethal dose of a ‘glycol wine’ was about 25-30 litres at a time….. There is a distinctive tension common to all these wines which should be emphasised, based on seven factors. Stiegelmar (http://www.stiegelmar.com/en) from Gols. The cuvee K11 Grand Reserve Kerschbaum 2011 €36 was also super. Steiermark is undoubtedly the most beautiful region and the one, which offers one of the best Sauvignon Blancs in Europe if not the world. One of the convicted Wagram winemakers, Karl Grill, proprietor of Firma Gebrüder Grill, committed suicide after being sentenced to a prison sentence. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Unfortunately, diethylene glycol, an ingredient in antifreeze, is poisonous. The Ina'mera 2011 (€28, cuvee of Blaufränkisch, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot) is recommended with the 2012 and 2013 vintages are also great. Austrian wine If you're after versatile wines to match many popular recipes – Rieslings for Indian curries and roast duck or chicken, Grüner Veltliner for Thai, Chinese and Vietnamese dishes, and lighter-style reds like St Laurent which is similar to Pinot Noir, then take a look at Cellar's collection from all over this diverse winemaking country. dry, etc), as well as the official Federal Inspection Number and name of the producer or bottler.. After a 1985 "glucose" scandal that saw unscrupulous winemakers using anti-freeze on their grapes, Austrian winemaking has returned to its organic origins, producing some of the best wines in Europe. Corks finally pop for Austrian wine 29 years after antifreeze scandal with Waitrose selling 53 per cent more than last year. Among the top winemakers were the wineries Netzl, Kollwentz, Gernot and Heike Heinrich, Preisinger, Scheiblhofer, Werner Achs, Umathum. Austrian Chardonnays and Grüner Veltliners were compared to some of the world’s most prestigious Chardonnays from Burgundy, California, and Australia.The tasting panel featured participants such as the wine writer Steven Spurrier, of Judgement of Paris fame.Seven of the first ten places were occupied by Austrian wines, with Knoll, Bründlmayer (2x), Velich, Prager, Loimer, and Freie Weingärtner Wachau, beating Louis Latour and Baron Thénard (Burgundy), Gaja (Italy) and Mondavi (California), The highest-rated Chardonnay of the tasting, placed third, was the Chardonnay Tiglat 1997 by Velich (Burgenland, Austria). 2013 vintage is not yet released, but 2012 available and he has a nice wooden box with those 4 different wines (http://shop.juris.at/de/weine/pinot-noir-lagen/pinot-noir-2012-lagen-holzkiste.html), The Pinot Noir Breitenteil 2012 was ranked third in Austria last year in the grape category and Ina'mera 2012 also third in the Cuvee category. Austrian Wine Scandal Item Preview podcast_witness-history-witness-archi_austrian-wine-scandal_1000401601931_itemimage.png . Leithaberg / Neusiedlersee-Hügelland offers good selection of white (Weissburgunder, Chardonnay), Red (Blaufränkisch) and sweet wines (Ruster Ausbruch is the most well known out of all). Vienna with its 612 hectares is a standalone region with its flagship Gemischter Satz, a new trendy wine produced from a variety of grapes, which are grown, harvested and fermented together. The short-term effect of the scandal was a complete collapse of Austrian wine exports and a huge dent in the reputation of the Austrian wine industry as well as in Germany similar in scale to the VW diesel engine emissions scandal uncovered in 2015. it took the Austrian wine industry over a decade to recover. One of the favourites amongst non-Burgundermachers (along with Juris - another Stiegelmar). The Pinot Noir Hochreit 2013 and Pinor Noir Breitenteil 2013 (both €31 Euros each), Pinot Noir Setzluss and Haide at the same price. At the 2015 event there were 121 winemakers invited to attend the event with 350 wines. Austrian wine exports practically collapsed overnight and its reputation as a winemaking nation was torn to shreds. It seems that the facts may have become slightly distorted after 33 years. Bob Campbell MW was the second wine writer in the world (after Jancis Robinson) to become a Master of Wine. Austria is a small country by wine-making standards, it accounts for less than 1% of a total world wine production with 46,000 hectares planted overall. Collapsed overnight and its reputation as a winemaking nation was torn to shreds wines also! Excellent although still young and will benefit from ageing of at least 1 year in a.! 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Find out everything you wanted to know more about Austrian wine sales tanked in... Particular vineyard the grapes are harvested from wine by seeing the country are also important mention.